Short Courses in Natural Sciences & Mathematics

Chemistry

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Chemistry is the science that covers composition, properties, structure and reactions of molecules, atoms and systems that include the two. Chemistry originated from the medieval art of alchemy, which sought to create gold through various transformations of materials. However, these experiments resulted in other scientific discoveries that created the basis for modern chemistry.

Chemistry is strongly connected to physics, but it differs because chemical analysis is made at an atomic level and substances change their structure, shape or state. All this study is done with the purpose of understanding the origin of the substance. Chemistry is divided into materials science, quantum, organic, and inorganic chemistry. Students who earn a Master degree in Chemistry (Master of Science) can specialize in kinetics, combinatorial chemistry, cluster chemistry, photochemistry, theoretical chemistry and more.

Pursuing a Master’s degree in Chemistry leads to careers in research and science in disciplines such as chemical engineering, pharmaceutics, or the public sector. Some of the highest paid career prospects are as analytical chemists, engineers, healthcare scientists, toxicologists or research scientists.

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Suggested Short Courses in Chemistry

Short Course Concept to Clinic

This Concept to Clinic module at The Open University UK provides an overview of the drug discovery and development process from a modern and historical perspective, exemplified by the design and development of current and future therapeutic drugs for pain and inflammation. 

United Kingdom

Top Ranked Universities in Chemistry on ShortCoursesPortal

Universities Location Shanghai Jiao Tong University Ranking (2017) Chemistry QS Rankings (2018) Chemistry Best Global Universities Rankings (2018) Chemistry
Berkeley, United States 1 2 1
Stanford, United States 2 4 4
Cambridge, United States 3 1 2
Pasadena, United States 4 8 17
Cambridge, United States 5 5 12
Evanston, United States 6 12 5
Zürich, Switzerland 7 11 23
Cambridge, United Kingdom 8 3 9
Kyoto, Japan 9 15 19
Chicago, United States 10 48 13
Austin, United States 11 23 10
Singapore, Singapore 12 16 2
Oxford, United Kingdom 13 6 14
Tokyo, Japan 14 10 20
College Station, United States 15 51 54
Los Angeles, United States 16 9 8
Beijing, China 17 12 15
Santa Barbara, United States 18 51 30
New York City, United States 19 40 74
Hefei, China 20 51 18
Chapel Hill, United States 21 34 35
Beijing, China 22 17 10
San Diego, United States 23 42 45
Lausanne, Switzerland 24 - -
Singapore, Singapore 25 7 7
Osaka-shi, Japan 26 26 32
Hangzhou, China 27 51 21
Urbana, United States 28 31 31
Toronto, Canada 29 20 34
Ithaca, United States 30 34 55
Shanghai, China 31 30 24
Salt Lake City, United States 32 301 133
Los Angeles, United States 33 151 156
Philadelphia, United States 34 51 39
Nanjing, China 35 51 24
Atlanta, United States 36 28 16
Jilin City, China 37 101 36
London, United Kingdom 38 14 26
Nagoya, Japan 39 51 85
West Lafayette, United States 40 38 79
Minneapolis, United States 41 - 51
Ann Arbor, United States 42 37 32
Pittsburgh, United States 43 51 58
Daejeon, South Korea 44 18 22
Madison, United States 44 51 27
Houston, United States 46 51 48
Tianjin, China 47 101 46
Sapporo, Japan 48 51 103
Paris, France 49 51 60
Sendai-shi, Japan 50 45 62
Tel Aviv Yaffo, Israel 50 151 84
Boston, United States 101 101 226
Lyon, France 101 151 112
Delft, Netherlands 101 51 86
Shanghai, China 101 251 214
Eindhoven, Netherlands 101 51 81
Atlanta, United States 101 201 115
Berlin Steglitz, Germany 101 51 101
Heidelberg, Germany 101 51 120
Wuhan, China 101 251 152
Mitte, Germany 101 101 131
Changde, China 101 - -
Kent, United States 101 451 206
Seoul, South Korea 101 51 92
Stockholm, Sweden 101 101 116
Leiden, Netherlands 101 101 203
Hsinchu, Taiwan 101 51 95
Raleigh, United States 101 201 121
Toulouse, France 101 201 -
Namyangju, South Korea 101 51 57
Jinan, China 101 251 121
Stockholm, Sweden 101 51 125
Guangzhou, China 101 151 63
Copenhagen, Denmark 101 101 77
Jerusalem, Israel 101 201 152
Hong Kong, Hong Kong (SAR) 101 27 44
Sydney, Australia 101 51 83
Tianjin, China 101 201 90
Dresden, Germany 101 101 161
Ulsan, South Korea 101 - 53
Bochum, Germany 101 151 152
Bristol, United Kingdom 101 51 106
Riverside, United States 101 151 108
Copenhagen, Denmark 101 51 149
Gainesville, United States 101 101 97
Groningen, Netherlands 101 101 123
Amherst Center, United States 101 101 97
Montpellier, France 101 151 160
South Bend, United States 101 201 112
Pittsburgh, United States 101 151 161
Rochester, United States 101 301 209
Rostock, Germany 101 451 147
St Andrews, United Kingdom 101 101 131
Lejona, Spain 101 - 164
Tsukuba, Japan 101 101 254
Coventry, United Kingdom 101 101 108
Würzburg, Germany 101 201 241
York, United Kingdom 101 201 387
Uppsala, Sweden 101 51 117
Utrecht, Netherlands 101 101 123
Seoul, South Korea 101 51 129
Marseille, France 151 251 173
Barcelona, Spain 151 151 182
Beijing, China 151 151 166
Beijing, China 151 - 117
Newton, United States 151 251 174
Providence, United States 151 201 100
Cleveland, United States 151 201 107
Kowloon, Hong Kong (SAR) 151 151 129
Madrid, Spain 151 151 182
Seoul, South Korea 151 101 95
Tallahassee, United States 151 201 247
Fuzhou, China 151 - 159
Gent, Belgium 151 101 110
Seoul, South Korea 151 51 125
Harbin, China 151 251 197
Bangalore, India 151 101 101
Ames, United States 151 201 226
Shushtar, Iran 151 - -
Lund, Sweden 151 51 158
Montréal, Canada 151 36 171
Stony Brook, United States 151 451 203
Hong Kong, Hong Kong (SAR) 151 51 167
Columbus, United States 151 101 167
Edinburgh, United Kingdom 151 51 140
Melbourne, Australia 151 45 138
Sheffield, United Kingdom 151 151 219
Buffalo, United States 151 251 207
Amsterdam, Netherlands 151 51 114
Basel, Switzerland 151 151 238
Bath, United Kingdom 151 101 164
Bologna, Italy 151 - 170
Bonn, Germany 151 201 213
Freiburg, Germany 151 201 233
Genève, Switzerland 151 151 216
Liverpool, United Kingdom 151 101 171
Marburg, Germany 151 251 198
Columbia, United States 151 - 544
Nottingham, United Kingdom 151 51 161
Regensburg, Germany 151 201 226
Rennes, France 151 351 177
Southampton, United Kingdom 151 101 221
Stuttgart, Germany 151 151 244
Sydney, Australia 151 50 134
Knoxville, United States 151 351 292
Valencia, Spain 151 201 157
Waterloo, Canada 151 151 103
Wollongong, Australia 151 101 134
Zaragoza, Spain 151 301 215
Zürich (Kreis 1), Switzerland 151 101 179
Wuhan, China 151 301 128
Xi'an, China 151 201 223
Helsinki, Finland 201 251 270
Madrid, Spain 201 101 181
Beijing, China 201 251 334
Beijing, China 201 251 226
Cardiff, United Kingdom 201 151 235
Changsha, China 201 401 321
Göteborg, Sweden 201 101 241
Prague, Czech Republic 201 301 211
Fort Collins, United States 201 251 226
Shanghai, China 201 401 274
Philadelphia, United States 201 401 236
Durham, United Kingdom 201 51 192
Lyon, France 201 401 342
Bloomington, United States 201 301 370
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 201 251 150
Seoul, South Korea 201 - -
Linköping, Sweden 201 301 274
East Lansing, United States 201 151 207
Moscow, Russia 201 51 142
Nanjing, China 201 - 278
Hsinchu, Taiwan 201 101 176
Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse Toulouse, France 201 - 239
New York City, United States 201 151 310
Changchun, China 201 - 305
Milano, Italy 201 - 217
Valencia, Spain 201 - 142
Nijmegen, Netherlands 201 251 -
Troy, United States 201 251 266
Roma, Italy 201 151 193
Shanghai, China 201 151 259
Nanjing, China 201 - 384
Darmstadt, Germany 201 251 335
Braunschweig, Germany 201 351 346
Dortmund, Germany 201 251 330
Tel Aviv Yaffo, Israel 201 - 330
Canberra, Australia 201 51 273
Kowloon, Hong Kong (SAR) 201 51 178
Adelaide, Australia 201 151 142
Akron, United States 201 301 187
Calgary, Canada 201 151 226
Athens, United States 201 251 293
Glasgow, United Kingdom 201 151 244
Hong Kong, Hong Kong (SAR) 201 28 140
Albuquerque, United States 201 401 299
Richardson, United States 201 301 136
Helotes, United States 201 - 223
Dallas, United States 201 451 568
Shanghai, China 201 301 270
Dublin, Ireland 201 151 198
Castellón de la Plana, Spain 201 - 270
Dublin, Ireland 201 101 284
Antwerpen, Belgium 201 251 314
Aveiro, Portugal 201 301 203
Bayreuth, Germany 201 401 266
Birmingham, United Kingdom 201 101 290
Santa Cruz, United States 201 401 414
Storrs, United States 201 301 314
Florence, Italy 201 201 193
Frankfurt am Main, Germany 201 - 429
Girona, Spain 201 - 318
Hamburg, Germany 201 251 320
Helsinki, Finland 201 151 223
Houston, United States 201 251 262
Chicago, United States 201 - 249
Jena, Germany 201 301 332
Jyväskylä, Finland 201 - 297
Kiel, Germany 201 401 378
Leeds, United Kingdom 201 101 248
Lisbon, Portugal 201 201 180
Mainz, Germany 201 201 193
Milano, Italy 201 151 232
Naples, Italy 201 301 293
Lincoln, United States 201 351 262
Ottawa, Canada 201 101 198
Padua, Italy 201 151 297
Porto, Portugal 201 251 219
Santiago de Compostela, Spain 201 401 281
São Paulo, Brazil 201 101 174
Beijing, China 201 301 281
Sevilla, Spain 201 301 416
Columbia, United States 201 351 398
University, United States 201 451 182
Trieste, Italy 201 351 236
Turin, Italy 201 251 286
Enschede, Netherlands 201 - 198
Ulm, Germany 201 351 252
Vienna, Austria 201 201 193
Charlottesville, United States 201 251 249
Paris, France 201 401 259
Tarragona, Spain 201 - 279
Nashville, United States 201 201 305
Richmond, United States 201 401 509
Blacksburg, United States 201 251 222
Amsterdam, Netherlands 201 201 217
Tokyo, Japan 201 101 233
Saint Louis, United States 201 101 202
Zhengzhou, China 201 - 378
Beersheba, Israel 301 - 365
Bielefeld, Germany 301 - 454
Waltham, United States 301 401 544
Chongqing, China 301 - 432
Gwangju, South Korea 301 - 326
Seoul, South Korea 301 351 440
Sydney, Australia 301 251 211
Halifax, Canada 301 251 503
Burwood, Australia 301 301 274
Paris, France 301 201 414
Palaiseau, France 301 251 376
Paris, France 301 - 360
Graz, Austria 301 301 356
Southport, Australia 301 401 293
Gwangju, South Korea 301 301 324
Hiroshima, Japan 301 251 314
Hong Kong, Hong Kong (SAR) 301 301 254
Mumbai, India 301 101 187
Toulouse, France 301 - -
Bremen, Germany 301 - 425
Kraków, Poland 301 401 299
Wuhan, China 301 - -
Zhenjiang, China 301 - 393
Dhahran, Saudi Arabia 301 251 190
London, United Kingdom 301 151 446
Ottawa, Canada 301 251 345
Bethlehem, United States 301 351 324
Baton Rouge, United States 301 451 413
Hamilton, Canada 301 151 335
Nanjing, China 301 - 472
Nanjing, China 301 - 395
Lisbon, Portugal 301 251 252
Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom 301 251 456
Boston, United States 301 201 342
Xi'an, China 301 - 305
Busan, South Korea 301 201 371
London, United Kingdom 301 301 389
Kingston, Canada 301 151 347
Belfast, United Kingdom 301 201 347
Saarbrücken, Germany 301 451 -
Chongqing, China 301 - 398
Reading, United Kingdom 301 351 548
Tokyo, Japan 301 201 264
Alicante, Spain 301 301 384
Tucson, United States 301 301 384
Belgrade, Serbia 301 - 383
Bern, Switzerland 301 301 368
Dijon, France 301 - 517
San Francisco, United States 301 - 362
Campinas, Brazil 301 101 286
Köln, Germany 301 301 410
Rethymno, Greece 301 401 402
Düsseldorf, Germany 301 301 485
Essen, Germany 301 451 402
Norwich, United Kingdom 301 351 -
Gießen, Germany 301 - 371
Granada, Spain 301 401 407
Graz, Austria 301 301 395
Halle, Germany 301 451 395
Hannover, Germany 301 251 362
Innsbruck, Austria 301 401 466
Lawrence, United States 301 301 491
Konstanz, Germany 301 401 507
Leipzig, Germany 301 251 335
Nancy, France 301 - 305
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 301 101 185
Milano, Italy 301 - 332
Mons, Belgium 301 351 425
Montréal, Canada 301 101 314
Nantes, France 301 401 290
Denton, United States 301 - 402
Eugene, United States 301 - 526
Oslo, Norway 301 301 329
Oviedo, Spain 301 - 449
Paris, France 301 - 456
Pau, France 301 - 434
Perugia, Italy 301 451 299
Amiens, France 301 - 360
Potsdam, Germany 301 451 410
Roma, Italy 301 351 375
Fisciano, Italy 301 - 392
Adelaide, Australia 301 301 409
Glasgow, United Kingdom 301 151 322
Brighton, United Kingdom 301 - -
Sydney, Australia 301 201 340
Tübingen, Germany 301 251 477
Versailles, France 301 - -
Vigo, Spain 301 - 525
Wageningen, Netherlands 301 - 305
Warsaw, Poland 301 301 318
Milwaukee, United States 301 - 451
Vienna, Austria 301 201 326
Pullman, United States 301 251 310
Detroit, United States 301 - 561
Morgantown, United States 301 - 509
London, Canada 301 151 -
Xiangtan, China 301 - 516
Hefei, China 401 - -
Thessaloníki, Greece 401 351 357
Ramat Gan, Israel 401 - 407
Ankara, Turkey 401 401 279
Bowling Green, United States 401 - -
Budapest, Hungary 401 301 421
Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium 401 151 249
Chemnitz, Germany 401 - 481
Chiba, Japan 401 301 451
Beijing, China 401 - 529
Jeonju, South Korea 401 351 326
Clemson, United States 401 - 440
Golden, United States 401 401 274
Washington, D. C., United States 401 351 -
Harbin, China 401 - 435
Edinburgh, United Kingdom 401 301 581
Kanpur, India 401 201 254
Khargapur, India 401 201 264
Chennai, India 401 151 312
Indianapolis, United States 401 - 548
Incheon, South Korea 401 351 406
Grenoble, France 401 - 446
Linz, Austria 401 351 495
Tokyo, Japan 401 151 444
Seoul, South Korea 401 - -
Daegu, South Korea 401 301 354
Nanchang, China 401 - 522
Nanjing, China 401 - 502
Mexico City, Mexico 401 151 335
Tainan, Taiwan 401 201 350
Taichung, Taiwan 401 201 -
Galway, Ireland 401 351 -
Xi'an, China 401 - 491
Gjøvik, Norway 401 351 342
Akademgorodok, Russia 401 201 286
Qinzhou, China 401 - -
Norfolk, United States 401 - -
Corvallis, United States 401 - 466
Osaka-shi, Japan 401 - 470
Olomouc, Czech Republic 401 - 286
Turin, Italy 401 - 357
Qingdao, China 401 - 540
Brisbane, Australia 401 301 357
Melbourne, Australia 401 251 416
Saint Petersburg, Russia 401 251 304
Xi'an, China 401 - 555
Shanghai, China 401 - 565
Burnaby, Canada 401 351 598
Guangzhou, China 401 - -
Philadelphia, United States 401 - 565
Lubbock, United States 401 - 371
Tuscaloosa, United States 401 351 472
Auckland, New Zealand 401 101 371
Tokyo, Japan 401 401 -
Tokyo, Japan 401 - -
Medford, United States 401 401 463
Umeå, Sweden 401 351 437
Mulhouse, France 401 - 581
Brussels, Belgium 401 351 402
Cork, Ireland 401 201 587
Bremen, Germany 401 351 503
Buenos Aires, Argentina 401 101 416
Rende, Italy 401 - 401
Orlando, United States 401 - 432
Prague, Czech Republic 401 - 352
Cincinnati, United States 401 401 380
Coimbra, Portugal 401 251 410
Fribourg, Switzerland 401 - 470
Göteborg, Sweden 401 351 500
Hull, United Kingdom 401 - 488
Moscow, United States 401 - -
Jinan, China 401 - 485
Kaiserslautern, Germany 401 - 520
Lexington, United States 401 - 435
Liège, Belgium 401 351 431
Limerick, Ireland 401 401 584
Ljubljana, Slovenia 401 - 416
Málaga, Spain 401 - -
Messina, Italy 401 - 514
Braga, Portugal 401 401 466
Modena, Italy 401 - -
Parma, Italy 401 301 489
Pisa, Italy 401 251 281
Saskatoon, Canada 401 451 496
George Town, Malaysia 401 151 259
Odense, Denmark 401 351 -
Tehran, Iran 401 451 303
Victoria, Canada 401 451 -
Wroclaw, Poland 401 451 425
Logan, United States 401 - 496
Brussels, Belgium 401 301 451
Wenzhou, China 401 - 595
New York City, United States 401 - -
Hangzhou, China 401 - 517
Aarhus, Denmark 51 101 145
Tempe Junction, United States 51 151 152
Durham, United States 51 51 138
Shangyu, China 51 101 38
Baltimore, United States 51 51 185
Karlsruhe, Germany 51 51 67
Jeddah, Saudi Arabia 51 251 40
University Park, United States 51 51 48
Seoul, South Korea 51 19 41
Chengdu, China 51 201 111
Taipei, Taiwan 51 351 97
München, Germany 51 25 58
Haifa, Israel 51 201 187
Manchester, United Kingdom 51 38 50
Grenoble, France 51 151 93
Edmonton, Canada 51 51 167
Irvine, United States 51 - 119
Newark, United States 51 201 72
Münster, Germany 51 101 63
München, Germany 51 51 82
Orsay, France 51 251 145
Strasbourg, France 51 51 76
Xiamen, China 51 201 42
New Haven, United States 51 20 46
Dalian, China 76 101 43
Thuwal, Saudi Arabia 76 151 29
Leuven, Belgium 76 51 67
Fukuoka, Japan 76 51 88
Lanzhou, China 76 201 89
Melbourne, Australia 76 45 52
Taipei, Taiwan 76 33 60
Princeton, United States 76 24 28
Aachen, Germany 76 40 71
Shanghai, China 76 49 66
Guangzhou, China 76 201 72
Seoul, South Korea 76 51 36
Berlin, Germany 76 51 86
Brisbane, Australia 76 51 70
Tokyo, Japan 76 32 78
London, United Kingdom 76 43 74
Barcelona, Spain 76 51 94
Vancouver, Canada 76 44 150
Davis, United States 76 51 125
Boulder, United States 76 151 147
Erlangen, Germany 76 101 105
Göttingen, Germany 76 101 67
College Park, United States 76 151 91
Seattle, United States 76 51 63
Wuhan, China 76 101 55
Lausanne, Switzerland - 22 6
Irvine, United States - 101 -
Bangkok, Thailand - 151 366
New Brunswick, United States - 151 80
Frankfurt am Main, Germany - 151 -
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia - 151 380
New Delhi, India - 201 376
Seoul, South Korea - 201 347
Taipei, Taiwan - 201 354
Perth, Australia - 201 398
Kampung Baru Subang, Malaysia - 201 507
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia - 201 299
Bordeaux, France - 201 478
Rio Grande, Brazil - 251 440
Mexico City, Mexico - 251 -
Santiago, Chile - 251 -
New York City, United States - 251 -
Santiago, Chile - 251 -
Dunedin, New Zealand - 251 540
Cairo, Egypt - 301 389
Dublin, Ireland - 301 387
Florianópolis, Brazil - 301 548
Belo Oriente, Brazil - 301 472
Gubbi, India - 301 -
Roorkee, India - 301 284
Kobe, Japan - 301 592
Kaohsiung City, Taiwan - 301 -
São Paulo, Brazil - 301 454
Québec, Canada - 301 -
Cranfield, United Kingdom - 351 -
Kolkata, India - 351 293
Loughborough, United Kingdom - 351 491
Bang Yai, Thailand - 351 -
Athens, Greece - 351 529
Taoyuan City, Taiwan - 351 -
Seoul, South Korea - 351 -
Seoul, South Korea - 351 577
Stellenbosch, South Africa - 351 568
Mexico City, Mexico - 351 -
Aberdeen, United Kingdom - 351 555
Christchurch, New Zealand - 351 -
Cape Town, South Africa - 351 532
Pavia, Italy - 351 544
Wellington, New Zealand - 351 -
Warsaw, Poland - 351 352
Toronto, Canada - 351 -
Varanasi, India - 401 254
Houston, United States - 401 -
Hanover, United States - 401 -
Budapest, Hungary - 401 489
Istanbul, Turkey - 401 254
Manhattan, United States - 401 496
Kazan, Russia - 401 571
Ankara, Turkey - 401 422
Dolgoprudnyy, Russia - 401 578
Okayama, Japan - 401 -
New York City, United States - 401 -
Iowa City, United States - 401 534
Bogotá, Colombia - 401 -
Bucharest, Romania - 401 -
Kolkata, India - 401 475
Beijing, China - 401 -
Durban, South Africa - 401 350
Leicester, United Kingdom - 401 -
Patras, Greece - 401 422
Santiago, Chile - 401 -
Sherbrooke, Canada - 401 -
Guildford, United Kingdom - 401 -
Szeged, Hungary - 401 461
Tartu, Estonia - 401 491
Johannesburg, South Africa - 401 -
Turku, Finland - 451 475
Cairo, Egypt - 451 -
Alexandria, Egypt - 451 -
Washington, D. C., United States - 451 -
Kanazawa, Japan - 451 -
Bangkok, Thailand - 451 -
Kumamoto, Japan - 451 534
Palmerston North, New Zealand - 451 -
Osaka-shi, Japan - 451 -
Beijing, China - 451 -
Pune, India - 451 -
Tehran, Iran - 451 266
Kiev, Ukraine - 451 529
Tomsk, Russia - 451 -
Tomsk, Russia - 451 532
León, Mexico - 451 -
Nice, France - 451 591
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia - 451 -
Cluj-Napoca, Romania - 451 514
Brasília, Brazil - 451 -
Denver, United States - 451 -
Debrecen, Hungary - 451 597
Guelph, Canada - 451 -
Karachi, Pakistan - 451 -
Lausanne, Switzerland - 451 555
Winnipeg, Canada - 451 -
Baltimore Highlands, United States - 451 -
Boston, United States - 451 -
Mumbai, India - 451 -
Newcastle, Australia - 451 561
Norman, United States - 451 -
Turku, Finland - 451 -
Wroclaw, Poland - 451 463
Bologna, Italy - 51 -
Minneapolis, United States - 51 -
Lille, France - - 239
Nijmegen, Netherlands - - 244
Qingdao, China - - 266
Wuhan, China - - 312
Wuhan, China - - 322
Lisbon, Portugal - - 335
Tehran, Iran - - 366
Walnut Grove, Canada - - 389
Pisa, Italy - - 424
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - - 425
Brno, Czech Republic - - 437
Isfahan, Iran - - 440
Cordova, Spain - - 444
Azadshahr, Iran - - 446
Poznan, Poland - - 449
Barcelona, Spain - - 456
Wuxi, China - - 459
Bucharest, Romania - - 461
Ulsan, South Korea - - 463
Jinju, South Korea - - 466
Baltimore, United States - - 478
Gyeongsan, South Korea - - 478
Tabriz, Iran - - 481
Nagano-shi, Japan - - 485
Johannesburg, South Africa - - 506
Izmir, Turkey - - 509
Vienna, Austria - - 512
Toru´n, Poland - - 517
Bratislava, Slovakia - - 522
Sofia, Bulgaria - - 522
Al Mansurah, Egypt - - 526
Taipei, Taiwan - - 534
Guangzhou, China - - 534
Orléans, France - - 534
Istanbul, Turkey - - 540
Qingdao, China - - 540
Stockholm, Sweden - - 544
Bratislava, Slovakia - - 548
Adelaide, Australia - - 548
University Park, United States - - 548
Genoa, Italy - - 548
Palma de Mallorca, Spain - - 555
Poitiers, France - - 561
Hobart, Australia - - 561
Erzurum, Turkey - - 565
Pardubice, Czech Republic - - 568
Caen, France - - 571
Zagreb, Croatia - - 571
Hangzhou, China - - 576
Arlington, United States - - 578
Tampere, Finland - - 581
Fukuoka, Japan - - 584
Katowice, Poland - - 587
Shenyang, China - - 590
Joensuu, Finland - - 592
Suwon, South Korea - - 598
Nara, Japan - - 598